The history of Apothecary gardens in Russia
The oldest form of medicinal plant cultivation in Russia were monastic gardens, some of which, along with the cultivation of vegetables was also planted the garden “selinah herbs”.
Appeared in 1606 the first Russian court pharmacy used the drugs more exclusively of foreign origin. And only in 1630 (after the establishment of the pharmaceutical order) first mentioned about the organization in Russia wild collection of medicinal herbs through special collectors, so-called “pumas” or “herbalists”, who were parties all summer to collect herbs under the supervision of writ of the people or the local Governor.
Besides time, the beginning of cultivation of medicinal plants in Russia. In the second half of the XVII century in Moscow and its surroundings were established 4 the Apothecary garden, which occupied a small area and cultivated for up to 20 different plants, giving yields as measured in the tens bundles.
In the eighteenth century organized a network of new pharmaceutical vegetable gardens: in 1706, in Moscow, in 1709 – in Lubny and in the village of Terny in the province of Poltava, in 1713, in St. Petersburg in 1720 – in Astrakhan and in 1763 – in Tobolsk. Were created Apothecary gardens when hospitals.
St. Petersburg pharmaceutical garden was made in 1752 about 300 species of medicinal plants, but later lost its pharmaceutical person and turned into Botanicheskaya, which was named in 1823 the Cultivation of medicinal plants, nevertheless, it lasted until 1842,while the demands for medicinal plants have not stopped. Until then, while the St. Petersburg Botanical garden, handed over free of charge in state pharmaceutical store their products in 300 and 400 pounds – it was supported, but only with 1830 stopped free vacation, products began to fall, prekratilis perfectly to 1842, when the Treasury decided that it is cheaper to buy medicinal herbs abroad.
Astrakhan Apothecary garden was under the jurisdiction of the medical office until 1799 after which he was eliminated. In 1842 was opened the new public garden, where, in 1849, was cultivated 33 trade, dyeing and medicinal herbs including 1964 copies.
Opened, also private enterprises for the production of vegetable raw materials.
In 1809 in Lubny has any private herb garden when the pharmacy opened there Sharing. The successor of Del – Belyavsky in the late nineteenth century on a plantation area of 10 acres cultivated about 30 species of plants.
Overall, the development of production of medicinal plants in Russia pre-revolutionary period was faced with the problem of the organization of sales resulting from stiff foreign competition and inept of doing things. Therefore, government and private enterprises on cultivation of medicinal herbs quickly went bankrupt and disappeared.
As he wrote V. V. Pashkevich(1914) in his essay, “Medicinal plants” on Novgorod plantation mint K. Ivanov:”Ivanov Extracted peppermint oil for a long time did not find sales, in a strange way, on the grounds that it was too high quality. But Ivanov said that in the end will be attached to sales with such a condition that the oil was going under the name overseas and to the place of sale Ivanov I didn’t tell anyone.”