Practical medicine from the earliest times uses medicinal plants for their own purposes. Starting from the times of primitive communal system, the first people used the medicinal properties of plants to treat their diseases. In our days relevant is the use of medicinal plants for the treatment and support of people’s health.
The percentage of medicines based on plant raw materials relative to synthetic drugs – great. For example, in Russia it is about 40% of the total weight. In Europe and Asia it is much higher. In the US, where preference is given to preparations of synthetic origin, 26.2% of drugs have in their composition substances of medicinal plants.
In the last decades significantly increased the use of drugs, which are active ingredients derived from medicinal plants. One of the reasons that led to such a turn of events has been the emergence of drug disease. Drug disease was the result of increased use of medicines of synthetic origin. The main advantages of medicinal plants are: the absence of significant side effects, they are suitable for long-term use, low toxicity and good performance with complex effects.
It is necessary to take into account that today, a lot of valuable medicinal preparations made only from serialising plants. There are differences between some drugs of natural origin and their synthetic analogues. For example, the synthetic Camphor is used externally only, as obtained from the Laurus camphor can be used for injection. Continue reading
The oldest form of medicinal plant cultivation in Russia were monastic gardens, some of which, along with the cultivation of vegetables was also planted the garden “selinah herbs”.
Appeared in 1606 the first Russian court pharmacy used the drugs more exclusively of foreign origin. And only in 1630 (after the establishment of the pharmaceutical order) first mentioned about the organization in Russia wild collection of medicinal herbs through special collectors, so-called “pumas” or “herbalists”, who were parties all summer to collect herbs under the supervision of writ of the people or the local Governor.
Besides time, the beginning of cultivation of medicinal plants in Russia. In the second half of the XVII century in Moscow and its surroundings were established 4 the Apothecary garden, which occupied a small area and cultivated for up to 20 different plants, giving yields as measured in the tens bundles.
In the eighteenth century organized a network of new pharmaceutical vegetable gardens: in 1706, in Moscow, in 1709 – in Lubny and in the village of Terny in the province of Poltava, in 1713, in St. Petersburg in 1720 – in Astrakhan and in 1763 – in Tobolsk. Were created Apothecary gardens when hospitals.
St. Petersburg pharmaceutical garden was made in 1752 about 300 species of medicinal plants, but later lost its pharmaceutical person and turned into Botanicheskaya, which was named in 1823 the Cultivation of medicinal plants, nevertheless, it lasted until 1842,while the demands for medicinal plants have not stopped. Until then, while the St. Petersburg Botanical garden, handed over free of charge in state pharmaceutical store their products in 300 and 400 pounds – it was supported, but only with 1830 stopped free vacation, products began to fall, prekratilis perfectly to 1842, when the Treasury decided that it is cheaper to buy medicinal herbs abroad. Continue reading
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