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The history of Apothecary gardens in Russia

The oldest form of medicinal plant cultivation in Russia were monastic gardens, some of which, along with the cultivation of vegetables was also planted the garden “selinah herbs”.

Appeared in 1606 the first Russian court pharmacy used the drugs more exclusively of foreign origin. And only in 1630 (after the establishment of the pharmaceutical order) first mentioned about the organization in Russia wild collection of medicinal herbs through special collectors, so-called “pumas” or “herbalists”, who were parties all summer to collect herbs under the supervision of writ of the people or the local Governor.

Besides time, the beginning of cultivation of medicinal plants in Russia. In the second half of the XVII century in Moscow and its surroundings were established 4 the Apothecary garden, which occupied a small area and cultivated for up to 20 different plants, giving yields as measured in the tens bundles.

In the eighteenth century organized a network of new pharmaceutical vegetable gardens: in 1706, in Moscow, in 1709 – in Lubny and in the village of Terny in the province of Poltava, in 1713, in St. Petersburg in 1720 – in Astrakhan and in 1763 – in Tobolsk. Were created Apothecary gardens when hospitals.

St. Petersburg pharmaceutical garden was made in 1752 about 300 species of medicinal plants, but later lost its pharmaceutical person and turned into Botanicheskaya, which was named in 1823 the Cultivation of medicinal plants, nevertheless, it lasted until 1842,while the demands for medicinal plants have not stopped. Until then, while the St. Petersburg Botanical garden, handed over free of charge in state pharmaceutical store their products in 300 and 400 pounds – it was supported, but only with 1830 stopped free vacation, products began to fall, prekratilis perfectly to 1842, when the Treasury decided that it is cheaper to buy medicinal herbs abroad. Continue reading

Manufacturing of herbs

Production and commercial company “VITAFARM” (LLC) – the heart, the “motor” of the entire company, which occupies a worthy place among the other Russian enterprises manufacturing medicines from raw materials of vegetable origin. The company has a Federal license for production of medicines from plant material and produces 117 titles of medicines: fees and monotropy, medicinal teas and medicines based on plant components. Daily in 12 regions of Russia and the near abroad leave vehicles with our products.

A considerable source of income PKF “FITOFARM” is the preparation of vegetable raw materials for further sales of pharmaceutical, cosmetic and even food companies, enterprises and foreign partners. Production and commercial company “FITOFARM” is an active participant of foreign trade activity: in 15 countries it has its counterparties. Successfully work “FITOFARM” with the companies of neighboring countries – Belarus, Ukraine, Lithuania.

Fruitful cooperation of the company been established with companies of far-abroad countries: Bulgaria, Poland, Albania, Egypt, China, and even such exotic for Russia countries as Indonesia and Vietnam.

The geography of cooperation is due to the fact that the majority of enterprises, materiaaleista the Soviet Union medicinal herbs on an industrial scale, after the collapse of the Soviet Union found themselves outside of Russia. Many successful last production are unable to adapt to new market relations and ceased to exist. Because of the lack of raw materials for Russian pharmaceutical factories today is compensated at the expense of foreign partners. Continue reading

Ophthalmologists Ancient Egypt

Ophthalmology is the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases of organs of vision — in Ancient Egypt was a specialized branch of medicine.

In 1926 during excavations near the pyramid of Cheops was discovered a funerary stele. Hieroglyphic inscription indicates that it depicts a court physician of Iran, known from surviving historical documents as ophthalmologist, gastroenterologist, pharmacist and proctologist. The creation of this monument, scientists determined quite accurately — the middle of III Millennium BC, Therefore, already in Egypt there was a system of specialization of physicians in certain areas, including ophthalmology.

Information about the achievements of eye physicians of the Nile Delta reached the scientists of the pharaohs was found correspondence with the Hittite kings. So, Ramses II in his letter to the ruler of the Hittites Hattusili III reports that due to illness of the eye the latter sends him “good medicine”.

The famous document of the XV century BC the so-called Leiden papyrus (named after the town in Germany where he is now kept), suggests that the treatment of eye diseases, along with rational actions, included the recitation of certain magical spells, addressed to the God RA. This confirms the close connection of healing with the religious ideas of the ancient Egyptians.

Scientific knowledge, lakopenicescoe luminaries of Ancient Egypt, widely seen in the famous papyrus Ebers, the creation date of which is 1550 BC Historical document contains a total of 431 ophthalmic recommendation. Continue reading